India’s current population is at 1.2 billion of which 700 million is working age population. Of these, 200 million are university graduates with the remaining 500 million people needing training to productively participate in the workforce. India has set a target to train these 500 million by 2022, around 50 million of these are estimated to be already trained. This training target is divided across three agencies National Skills Development Corporation (150 million), Ministry of Labour and Employment (100 million) and Ministry of Human Resource Development (50 million). The remaining 150 million is divided over 17 Ministries.
There are around 8,800 Industrial Training Institutes and Industrial Training Centres with 1.22 million places offering training in 116 trades. The ITIs and ITCs are government funded training institutes currently managed under the Ministry of Labour and Employment. Eight per cent of all Senior Secondary Schools in India offer vocational education and three per cent of the students are under the ambit of vocational education against a target of 25 per cent set a the level of Grade 11-12 students.
India’s current capacity is to train 4.3 million people against 12.8 million youth entering the market every year. The capacity requirement is likely to grow eight-fold by 2020 representing a business opportunity worth USD 22 billion for the private sector.
India’s 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17) builds on the 11th Plan’s focus on increasing enrollment volume with a greater focus on ensuring quality and equity in growth and the need to improve learning outcomes (employability) from VET and higher education. Key priorities in the plan are as follows:
- A National Skills Qualifications Framework to cover both vocational and higher education improved quality and quantity of VET Trainers
- Promoting Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) including to upgrade ITIs.
Under the new Government, a new Ministry of Skills Development, Entrepreneurship, Youth Affairs and Sports, has been established for promoting entrepreneurship and skill development. The Government will focus on skill development, with nearly 65 per cent of the population below the age of 35 years.
The Government is planning to work on a ‘skilling programme for India’ with a focus on youth and announced the launch of a national multi-skilling program known as ‘Skill India’. The program will focus on giving employment skills training to young people.
National Skill Development Corporation
India’s National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), has responsibility for:
- up-skilling 150 million Indians by 2022 (contributing to the national goal of skilling 500 million by 2022) by fostering private sector initiatives in skill development programmes and providing funding
- developing national occupational standards (NOS)
- establishing Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) (India’s equivalent to Australia’s Industry Skills Councils (ISCs)
- Indian Government’s STAR scheme, which funds training for individuals at approved institutes. STAR has a budget of INR 10 billion (AUD 180 million).
Ministry of Labour and Employment
The Directorate General of Employment and Training (DGET) under the Ministry of Labour and Employment (MoLE) regulates the vocational training system in India. It is an apex organisation for the development and coordination of national level vocational training programmes, including women's vocational training and employment services, training of instructors and trade testing.
DGET is advised by the National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT), a tripartite body having representatives from employers, workers and central/state governments, on aspects regarding policy formulation, training standards, evaluation, certification and accreditation. The NCVT prescribes standards and curricula for craftsmen training, conducting All India Trade Tests and awarding National Trade Certificates.
Australia’s engagement with MOLE has involved supporting 11 Indian Advanced Training Institute leaders to undertake training by TAFE Directors Australia (TDA). The program aimed to develop a pool of capable leaders by equipping them with modern management concepts and skills in vocational education.
Ministry of Human Resource Development
The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) ensures overall development and regulation of education in India, including primary, secondary and higher education. MHRDalso plays a key role in vocational education, with the following responsibilities:
- Vocational secondary education
- Diploma level courses through approximately 12000 polytechnics and institutions in the fields of engineering, electronics, hotel management, pharmacy, architecture, medical lab technology and computer sciences
- Short term non-formal skill development programs through Community Polytechnics
- Vocational training for socio-economically weaker, unskilled and unemployed adults and youth, run by NGOs in rural and urban areas (Jan ShikshanSansthan program)
- Pre- degree level vocational courses through the National Institute of Open Schooling.
For more information on Vocational Education in India: